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The term Pashtun, or Pushtun or Pakhtun, describes a group of people living in Pakistan and along the eastern border of Afghanistan. It is also the name of their language. Pashtuns form about 11% of Pakistan's population and 45% of Afghanistan's.

During the British Raj the Pashtuns were called "Pathans" by the British. The word Afghan also originally meant Pashtun, this use of the word remaining in many parts of Afghanistan. The 19th century partition of Pashtunistan by the British between India (now Pakistan) and Afghanistan remains a sore point to this day.

The Pashtun people are predominantly Sunni Muslim and formed the backbone of the Taliban government in Afghanistan.

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