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Nice

Nice (Italian Nizza, Provençal Niça or Nissa) is a city in Southern France located on the Mediterranean coast, between Cannes and Monaco. It is the préfecture (capital) of the Alpes-Maritimes département.

The city is a major tourist centre and a leading resort on the French Riviera - Côte d'Azur. It is pronounced to rhyme with 'peace' (SAMPA: ['nis]).

History

Nice (Nicaea) was founded about two thousand years ago by the Phocaeans of Marseille, and received the name of Nikaia in honour of a victory over the neighbouring Ligurians (Nike being the goddess of victory). It soon became one of the busiest trading stations on the Ligurian coast; but as a city it had an important rival in the town of Cemenelum, which continued to exist till the time of the Lombard invasions, and has left its ruins at Cimiez[?], which is now a quater of Nice.

In the 7th century Nice joined the Genoese league formed by the towns of Liguria. In 729 it repulsed the Saracens; but in 859 and 880 they pillaged and burned it, and for the most of the l0th, century remained masters of the surrounding country.

During the middle ages Nice had its share in the wars and disasters of Italy. As an ally of Pisa it was the enemy of Genoa, and both the king of France and the emperor endeavoured to subjugate it; but in spite of all it maintained its municipal liberties. In the course of the 13th and 14th centuries it fell more than once into the hands of the counts of Provence; and at length in 1388 it placed itself under the protection of the counts of Savoy.

The maritime strength of Nice now rapidly increased till it was able to cope with the Barbary pirates; the fortifications were largely extended and the roads to the city improved. During the struggle between Francis I. and Charles V. great damage was caused by the passage of the armies invading Provence; pestilence and famine raged in the city for several years. It was in Nice that the two monarchs in 1538 concluded, through the mediation of Paul III, a truce of ten years.

In 1543 Nice was attacked by the united forces of Francis I. and Barbarossa; and, though the inhabitants, repulsed the assault which succeeded the terrible bombardment, they were ultimately compelled to surrender, and Barbarossa was allowed to pillage the city and to carry off 2500 captives. Pestilence appeared again in 1550 and 1580.

In 1600 Nice was taken by the duke of Guise. By opening the ports of the countship to all nations, and proclaiming full freedom of trade, Charles Emmanuel in 1626 gave a great stimulus to the commerce of the city, whose noble families took part in its mercantile enterprises. Captured by Catinat in 1691, Nice was restored to Savoy in 1696; but it was again besieged by the French in 1705, and in the following year its citadel and ramparts were demolished.

The treaty of Utrecht in 1713 once more gave the city back to Savoy; and in the peaceful years which followed the " new town" was built. From 1744 till the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748) the French and Spaniards were again in possession. In 1775 the king of Sardinia destroyed all that remained of the ancient liberties of the commune. Conquered in 1792 by the armies of the French Republic, the county of Nice continued to be part of France till 1814; but after that date it reverted to Sardinia. By a treaty concluded in 1860 between the Sardinian king and Napoleon III. it was again transferred to France, and the cession was ratified by over 25,000 electors out of a total of 30,700.

From 1911 EB, further rework required


The Nice was a 1960s rock band.
nice is a command found on POSIX like Operating Systems like ( Linux, BSD ). It directly maps to a Kernel command of the same name. For a given Computer process, it changes the priority in the kernel's scheduler



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