Encyclopedia > Independents

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The Independents were film companies who resisted the claims of the MPPC. They built their own cameras to evade the trust's patents and moved away from the Edison Trust's strongholds to Hollywood, California, where they laid the foundations of the studio system and of the American film industry as such.

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List of painters

... and painter Tadeusz Makowski[?], Polish painter Zbigniew Makowski[?], Polish painter Vladimir Makuc[?], (born 1925), painter and graphic artist. Jacek Malczewski[?], ...