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Independents

The Independents were film companies who resisted the claims of the MPPC. They built their own cameras to evade the trust's patents and moved away from the Edison Trust's strongholds to Hollywood, California, where they laid the foundations of the studio system and of the American film industry as such.



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... a coalition government. This option is only ever taken at a time of national emergency, such as war-time. It was given in 1916 to Andrew Bonar Law, and when he declined, to ...