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Home run

In baseball, a home run is a base hit in which the batter is able to circle all the bases, ending at home plate and scoring a run.

Home runs are among the most popular aspects of baseball, and the biggest stars are typically the players who hit many of them.

In almost all cases, a home run involves hitting the ball over the outfield fence. Very rarely, a batter can hit the ball in play and circle all the bases before the fielders can stop him; this is called an inside-the-park home run, and typically requires that the fielder misplay the ball in some way, or that the ball is made difficult to play by caroming in unexpected ways or by getting caught in something. If the misplay is labelled an error by the official scorer, however, the batter is not credited with a home run.

Prior to 1931, a ball that bounced over an outfield fence was considered a home run. The rule was changed to require the ball to clear the fence on the fly, and balls which reached the seats on a bounce became ground-rule doubles in most parks.

The all-time career record for home runs in Major League Baseball is 755, held by Hank Aaron. Only three other players have hit as many as 600, Babe Ruth (714), Willie Mays (660), and Barry Bonds (626+). The single season record is 73, set by Barry Bonds in 2001.

Other home run legends include Mark McGwire, Sammy Sosa, Mickey Mantle, Reggie Jackson, Josh Gibson[?] and Sadaharu Oh.

Slang terms for home runs include: big-fly, bomb, dinger, blast, clout, four-bagger, homer, jack, moonshot, round-tripper, swat, tater.

Progression of the Single-Season Home-Run Record

5, by George Hall, Phinadelphia Athletics (NL), 1876 (70 games)
9, by Charley Jones in 1879
14, by Harry Stovey, 1883
27, by Ned Williamson, Chicago White Stockings (NL), 1884
Williamson benefitted by a short outfield fence in his home ballpark. The year before and the year afterward, balls hit over that fence in that park were ground-rule doubles, but in 1884 they counted as home runs. Williamson led the pace, but several of his Chicago teammates also topped the 20 HR mark that season. Noticing the fluke involved, fans of the early 20th century were more impressed with Buck Freeman's total of 25 home runs in 1899 or Gavy Cravath's 1915 total of 24.
29, by Babe Ruth, Boston Red Sox (AL), 1919
54, by Ruth, New York Yankees (AL), 1920
Ruth hit nearly the same number of home runs on the road in 1920 as he did in 1919, but hit far more in the Polo Grounds in New York (where the Yankees played at the time) than he did in Fenway Park in Boston the year before.
59, by Ruth, New York (AL), 1921
60, by Ruth, New York (AL), 1927
Ruth hit more home runs in 1927 than each of the other seven American League teams. His closest rival was his teammate, Lou Gehrig, who hit 47 homers that year.
61, by Roger Maris[?], New York (AL), 1961
Pushing Maris that year was teammate Mickey Mantle; slowed by an injury late in the season, Mantle finished with 54.
70, by Mark McGwire, St. Louis Cardinals (NL), 1998
Pushing McGwire that year was Sammy Sosa of the Chicago Cubs, who finished with 66.
73, by Barry Bonds, San Francisco Giants (NL), 2001
It seems necessary for challengers to this record to appear in pairs, perhaps because the presence of a competitor distracts a hitter from the intense media pressure that accompanies a challenge to this record. In this case, the competitor was Sosa again, hitting 64 round-trippers.

See also: List of lifetime home run leaders through history

Home run also refers to a cable configuration where cable runs from a central location to each device individually, i.e. a Star Topology as opposed to a Daisy Chain Topology.

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