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GPU is an abbreviation for Glavnoje Politicheskoe Upravlenije, Main Political Directorate. It is the name of the political police in the USSR in one of the stages of its development.

The GPU was formed from the Cheka in 1922. Already in 1923, it was was transformed into the OGPU with the formation of the USSR. It later evolved into the NKVD and KGB.

The organization and responsibility of the GPU was similar to Nazi Germany's Gestapo.

In computing, GPU is an abbreviation for Graphics Processing Unit, meaning the processor on a graphics card. NVIDIA Corporation coined the term around 1999 to describe its GeForce range of graphics chips, based on the abbreviation CPU for a computer's central processor. However, Sony may have used the term in 1994 to describe the graphics hardware inside its PlayStation game console.

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