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Finnish War

The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. As a result of the war Finland became an autonomous grand duchy under the Russian tzar.

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Background In the treaty of Tilsit in 1807 Napoleon and the Russian tzar Alexander I decided that Russia should force Sweden to join the Continental System.

The war On February 21, 1808 Russian troops crossed the border. At the same time southern Sweden was threatened by an attack from Denmark. The plan of the Swedish army under Johan Adam Cronstedt[?] was to retreat into Ostrobothnia leaving only the strongly fortified Sveaborg behind. The fort surrendered although there was enough ammunition and food to last several months.

Under a new commander Carl Johan Adlercreutz[?], the Swedish army counter-attacked and halted the Russian offensive at the Battle of Siikajoki[?]. Although the Swedes were successful for a while they didn't receive the reinforcements that were needed. Adlercreutz fought a defensive battle at Oravais, but lost and was forced to retreat. The day before Georg Carl von Döbeln[?] had won the legendary Battle of Jutas[?].

On November 19 the convention of Olkijoki was signed and the Swedish army was forced to leave Finland.


Aftermath The Finnish war was finished with the treaty of Fredrikshamn on September 17, 1809.

See also: Finnish Civil War, Lands of Sweden, Johan Ludvig Runeberg

The Winter War is sometimes called the Russo-Finnish War.

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