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European Theater of Operations

The European Theater of Operations, or ETO, was the term used by the United States in World War II to refer to all Allied military activity in and around the continent of Europe, including North Africa.

However, it was also used to refer specifically to operations in northwest Europe only. The Operation TORCH[?] landings in North Africa were referred to as occurring in the North African Theater of Operations or NATO and then later (November 1, 1944) as the Mediterranean Theater of Operations or MTO.

Part of the confusion is perhaps caused by Dwight Eisenhower's multiple command appointments; he was appointed to command "European Theater of Operations, United States Army" (ETOUSA) in July 1942, but in November he also commanded the Allied forces in TORCH. He then gave up command of ETOUSA in February 1943 to be NATOUSA, and finally became Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF) in December, thus commander of ETOUSA again.



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