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Demography is the study of human populations. It encompasses the study of the size, structure and distribution of populations, and how populations change over time due to births, deaths, migration and ageing. Demographic analysis can relate to whole societies or to groups defined by criteria such as education, nationality, religion and ethnicity.

Data and methods

Demography relies on the use of large amounts of data, including census returns and records of births, marriages and deaths. The earliest modern census was carried out in Great Britain in 1801. See also Demographic statistics.

In many countries, particularly in the third world, reliable demographic data are still difficult to obtain. For example, during the 1980s the population of Nigeria was widely estimated to be around 110 million, before it was established to be as little as 89 million (without adjustment for undercounting) in a census carried out in 1991.

Important concepts in demography include:

  • The crude birth rate, the annual number of live births per thousand people.

  • The general fertility rate, the annual number of live births per 1000 women of childbearing age (often taken to be from 15 to 49 years old, but sometimes from 15 to 44).

  • age-specific fertility rates, the annual number of live births per 1000 women in particular age groups (usually age 15-19, 20-24 etc.)

  • The crude death rate, the annual number of deaths per 1000 people.

  • The infant mortality rate, the annual number of deaths of children less than 1 year old per thousand live births.

  • The expectation of life (or Life expectancy), the number of years which an individual at a given age can expect to live at present mortality levels.

  • The total fertility rate, the number of live births per woman completing her reproductive life, if her childbearing at each age reflected current age-specific fertility rates.

  • The gross reproduction rate, the number of daughters who would be born to a woman completing her reproductive life at current age-specific fertility rates.

  • The net reproduction rate is the number of daughters who would be born to a woman according to current age-specific fertility and mortality rates.

Note that the crude death rate as defined above and applied to a whole population can give a misleading impression. For example, the number of deaths per 1000 people can be higher for developed nations than in less-developed countries, despite standards of health being better in developed countries. This is because developed countries have relatively more older people, who are more likely to die in a given year, so that the overall mortality rate can be higher even if the mortality rate at any given age is lower. A more complete picture of mortality is given by a life table[?] which summarises mortality separately at each age. A life table is necessary to give a good estimate of life expectancy.


Among the earliest contributions to demography were the works of Thomas Malthus. Malthus concluded that, if unchecked, populations would grow exponentially[?]. He feared that population growth would tend to outstrip growth in food production, leading to ever increasing famine and poverty (see malthusian catastrophe).

The Demographic Transition

Contrary to Malthus' predictions, population growth in most developed countries has diminished to close to zero, without being held in check by famine or lack of resources, as people in developed nations have shown a tendency to have fewer children. The fall in population growth has occurred despite large rises in life expectancy in these countries.

Similar trends are now becoming visible in ever more developing countries, so that far from spiralling out of control, world population growth is expected to slow markedly in the next century, coming to an eventual standstill. The change is likely to be accompanied by major shifts in the proportion of world population in particular regions.

This pattern of population growth, with slow growth in preindustrial societies, followed by fast growth as the society develops and industrialises, followed by slow growth again as it becomes more affluent, is known as the demographic transition.

In Marketing

In the applied social sciences of marketing, consumer behavour[?], and marketing research, demographic concepts and techniques are used frequently. Marketers often group consumers into segments based on demographic variables. These market segments are sometimes referred to as "a demographic", that is, a marketer might speak of the single, female, middleclass, age 18 to 24 demographic.

See also: marketing, list of marketing topics, consumer behaviour[?], marketing research

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