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Demchugdongrub

Prince Demchugdongrub (February 8, 1902 - May 23, 1966) , was the leader of Mongol independence movement in Inner Mongolia. His Chinese courtesy name is Xixian (希賢). He assumed the Mongolian chairman of Mengjiang. He was a Mongol nationalist promoting Pan-Mongolism[?]. The Chinese try to view him as a traitor and as the pawn of the Japanese.

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Names

  • Often called King De
    • De Noyan in Mongolian
    • De Wang (德王) in Chinese
    • Some Mongolians called him King Lord De (德王爺)
  • In Chinese document, his name is Demuchukeloulupu (德穆楚克棟魯普)

Rise of leadership

A Chahar born of the Plain White Banner (正白旗) in Chahar Province, Demchugdongrub was the sole son of Namuzilewangchuke (那木濟勒旺楚克), the chief of the Xilinguole Alliance (錫- or 西林郭勒盟) and the Prefect-King of the Zasakeduoluotuling Prefecture of the Right Su'nile Banner (蘇尼特右旗紮薩克多羅杜棱郡王).

After Namuzilewangchuke died in 1908, the six-year-old Demchugdongrub, with the approval of the Qing Empire, inherited one of his father's titles -- the Prefect-King. Demchugdongrub studied Mongolian, Chinese, Manchu languages. After the fall of the Qing Empire, Yuan Shikai changed Demchugdongrub's title to the Jinong of Zhasakeheshiduling in 1912.

Demchugdongrub married a Taijide princess (台吉的格格) of his banner, and the next year had their first child, Dugursulong (都古爾蘇隆). Several years later, Demchugdongrub had four more sons and one daughter with his second fujing (福晉), a Taijide princess of the Abaga Banner (阿巴嘎旗).

Demchugdongrub was appointed a member of the Chahar Provincial Committee in 1929. Then in 1931 inherited his father's other title as the chief of the Xilinguole Alliance, after Yang Cang (楊桑), then Suotelamunuobutan (索特拉木諾布坦).

Collaboration with the Japanese

The Japanese, in February 1936, in the name of Manchukuo, established the Mongolian Military Command Headquarters (蒙古軍總司令部) with Demchugdongrub as the commander and the Japanese Yamauchi ___ (山內豐紀) as the advisor, on a mission to "inherit the great spirit of Genghis Khan and retake the territories that belong to Mongolia, completing the grand task of reviving the prosperity of the nationality".

After the ceremonial Mengjiang-Manchukuo alliance in May 1935, Henry Puyi honoured Demchugdongrub with the title of "Jinong of Wude" (武德).

The Mengjiang United Autonomous Government was set up in 1937 with Demchugdongrub first being the vice-chairman, then the chairman. In 1941 he became chairman of the Mongolian Autonomous Federation.

Downfall

In December 1949, after the collapse of the Federation, Demchugdongrub fled to Mongolia and was at first welcomed by the new nation, but then captured by the People's Republic of Mongolia in the following February and deported to China in September, where he was charged with treason by the People's Republic of China. Under supervision, he wrote nine memoirs and was pardoned 13 years later in April. Until his death at the age of 64 in Hohhot, he had worked in an Inner Mongolian history museum.



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