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Croydon Airport

Croydon Airport was once the main airport for London, before it was replaced by London Heathrow Airport and London Gatwick Airport.

It started out as two adjacent World War I airfields. Beddington Aerodrome, one of a number of small airfields around London which had been created for protection against the Zeppelin raids of the time in 1915, and Waddon Aerodrome, attached in 1918 as a test-flight aerodrome to National Aircraft Factory No1[?].

At the end of the war, the two airfields were combined into London's official airport as the gateway for all international flights to and from the capital. Thus, Croydon Aerodrome, as it was then called, opened on March 29, 1920.

It was the beginning of regular scheduled flights, carrying passengers, mail and freight, the first destinations being Paris, Amsterdam and Rotterdam. In 1923 Berlin joined the routes.

In the mid-1920s, the airfield was extended, roads lying in its path were permanently closed, and a new complex of buildings was constructed adjoining Purley Way[?], which included the first purpose-designed terminal building in the world, the Aerodrome Hotel and extensive hangars, all opening on May 2, 1928.

The terminal building, the booking hall within it with its gallery balustrated in the sharp design typical of the period, as well as the Aerodrome hotel, all were built in the Art Deco style of the 1920s and 1930s. A further item that caught the eye of visitor and traveller alike, was the time zone tower in the booking hall with its dials depicting the times in different parts of the world.

The aerodrome was known the world over, its fame being spread by the many aviators and pioneers who touched down at Croydon.

Here is a list of them:

When war was declared in September 1939, Croydon Airport was closed to civil aviation. It played a vital role as a fighter station during the Battle of Britain and was attacked in the first major raid over the London area. Factories in its immediate vicinity were almost destroyed with the loss of six airmen and over sixty civilians. In 1944, Croydon became the base of RAF Transport Command, and later in this role, civil aircraft began to be used again. In February 1946, the airport was handed back to civilian control.

Gradually it became clear that with technical advances, post-war airliners were going to be larger and the use of airports would intensify. Croydon, however, had no room for expansion and would be too small to cope with the additional demand very soon. Therefore Heathrow was designated as London's airport and the decision was made in 1952 that Croydon Airport would close. Blackbushe in Hampshire and Northolt Aerodrome in Middlesex also served airlines operating European scheduled flights during the 1950s. Croydon's last scheduled flight departed on 30 September 1959.

The site may still be seen. Much of it has been built over, but some of the terminal buildings near the main road are still visible (and clearly identifiable as to their former purpose) and a De Havilland Heron, a small (less than 20 seats) airliner of the 1950s, is currently (2002) parked outside. A memorial to the Battle of Britain stands slightly to the south.

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