Bosons, named after Satyendra Nath Bose, are particles which form totallysymmetric composite quantum states. As a result, they obey BoseEinstein statistics. The spinstatistics theorem[?] states that bosons have integer spin.
All elementary particles are either bosons or fermions.
Elementary bosons act as the carriers of the fundamental forces.
Particles composed of a number of other particles (such as protons or nuclei) can be either fermions or bosons, depending on their total spin. Hence, many nuclei are in fact bosons. While fermions obey the Pauli exclusion principle: "no more than one fermion can occupy a single quantum state", there is no exclusion property for bosons, which are free to (and indeed, other things being equal, prefer to) crowd into the same quantum state[?]. This explains the spectrum of blackbody radiation and the operation of lasers, the properties of liquid Helium4[?] and superconductors and the posibility of bosons to form BoseEinstein condensates, a particular state of matter.
Examples of bosons:
See also: Identical particles
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