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Bologna is a city of northern Italy, between the Po River and the Apennines[?]. Bologna was a Roman colony which survived as a medieval city to become a centre of learning and then a major city of the Renaissance papal states. Its townscape is enriched by elegant and extensive arcades.

The University of Bologna[?] received a charter from Frederick I Barbarossa in 1158, but it is clear that organized teaching and research had been ongoing since at least the 1080s.

The university was especially famous for its teaching in canon and civil law.

Gratian and Irnerius[?], two of the formative influences on legal study both taught at the university in the 12th Century (and Copernicus was also there to study in 1495).

The city was one of the first European settlements to experiment with the concept of "free" public transport.

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