Usually, the term "ballet" is restricted to works that follow the conventions of classical European ballet of the 19th and earlier centuries, whose stylistic conventions are rejected by later works termed "modern" or "contemporary" dance. However, the cross-pollination of ideas between the traditional ballet companies and dancers and contemporary works has blurred the distinction. The term classical ballet is often used when a strict separation with modern dance and "original" ballet is needed.
Ballet was primarily "invented" in France (resulting in most of its terminology being in French), but was based heavily upon the Italian court-dances of the late 14th century. It became very popular in the court of Louis XIV, whose performance as Apollo in one ballet earned him the moniker "the Sun King." He also established the Academie Royale de Danse[?], an organization of dancing-masters. At this time, ballet was performed in heavy ballroom attire, complete with wigs and masks. Pointe dancing was not known until the middle of the 18th century, when the Italian dancer Marie Taglioni[?] rose to the tips of her toes in La Sylphide[?], choreographed by her father Filippo[?]. Later, specific pointe shoes[?] were developed to make longer sequences of dancing on the toes possible, and pointe dancing is now considered an inseparable part of ballet.
Since its beginnings in France, ballet has been developed elsewhere throughout Europe, particularly in Russia, Italy, and Denmark. Currently, there are several methods of ballet instruction - for instance, the Russian Vaganova method, the method of the The Royal Academy of Dancing[?], the Cechetti method[?] - which differ slightly in presentation and execution of the basic steps in ballet.
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(The masque and other forms of theatrical dance pre-date the ballet.)