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Article One of the United States Constitution

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Article One of the United States Constitution creates the Legislative branch of the government, comprising a Senate and House of Representatives.

Article One, Section 1 states, in full:

All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Sections 2 and 3 describe the composition of the House of Representatives and the Senate respectively. The method of choosing Senators was amended to direct election by the Seventeenth Amendment.

Section 4 states, in full:

The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of choosing Senators.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

It was amended by the Twentieth Amendment.

Section 5 describes the parliamentary procedures of each House.

Section 6 describes the compensation, legal protection, and limits on elected legislators. The language on the compensation of the legislators was amended by the Twenty-seventh Amendment.

Section 7 describes the procedure by which bills become law, including:

  • All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives
  • Presidential veto power and the legislative power of veto override[?]

Section 8 enumerates the powers of Congress.

The Congress shall have power:

  1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;
  2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States;
  3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and with the Indian tribes;
  4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;
  5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures;
  6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States;
  7. To establish post offices and post roads;
  8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;
  9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;
  10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and offenses against the law of nations;
  11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on land and water;
  12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;
  13. To provide and maintain a navy;
  14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces;
  15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;
  16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
  17. To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dockyards, and other needful buildings;--And
  18. To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper[?] for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this Constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

Amendments 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 23, 24, and 26 explicitly extend the powers of Congress.

Section 9 describes miscellaneous limitations on Congress's powers. Further limitations can be found in several Constitutional amendments, especially the United States Bill of Rights.

The migration or importation of such persons as any of the states now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law[?] shall be passed.

No capitation[?], or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. (Amended by the Sixteenth Amendment to allow the income tax.)

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state.

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another: nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one state, be obliged to enter, clear or pay duties in another.

No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

Section 10 describes the limits on the legislative powers of the states.

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