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Abenaki mythology

The Abenaki (also Wabanaki) are a Native American tribe located in the northeastern United States. Religious ceremonies are led by shamans, called Medeoulin[?] (Mdawinno).

The history of the Abenaki people is divided into three time periods. In the first, the Ancient Age, humanity and animal-life are the undifferentiated. In the second, the Golden Age, animals are still humans, but quantitatively different. In the third, the Present Age, animals and humanity are totally differentiated.

Table of contents

Beings of the Ancient Age

  • Ato-sees[?] (also Atosis[?]) - a Medeoulin who is both snake and human, forces people to find a stick so that he can cook them with it, was blinded by Moosbas[?]
  • Az-ban[?] (also Azeban[?]) - raccoon or wolverine trickster spirit
  • Kee-wakw[?] - a gigantic, forest-dwelling cannibal
  • Kee-zos-en[?] - the solar deity, an eagle whose wings opened to create the day, and closed to cause the night-time
  • Keeta-skog[?] (also Peeta-skog[?]) - a snake-spirit who fights the Pa-don-gi-ak
  • K-tsee Awa-soos[?] - the first four stars of the Big Dipper are the Great Bear, who is chased every night by four hunters; he is killed every fall and his blood drips to earth turning the leaves brown while the constellation turns upside down; it is righted, and he is reborn, every spring
  • Mat-gwas[?] - a rabbit spirit, first (one of magic) the rabbit, the very first Medeoulin (shaman), legendary founded of the Meda Society of Magic[?]
  • Metee-kolen-ol[?] - a race of evil wizards with hearts of ice
  • Nanom-keea-po-da[?] - subterranean spirit who causes earthquakes
  • Nee-ben[?] - a woman whose stunning beauty forces Pe-ben to retreat to the north; she represents summer
  • P-mol-a[?] (also Bmola[?], Pomola[?]) - a bird and night spirit who takes prisoners to Alomkik[?], near Mt. Katahdin and causes cold weather
  • P-son-en[?] - an eagle-spirit that makes snow by opening his wings
  • Pa-don-gi-ak[?] - seven white-skinned, golden-haired brothers, half-human and half-bird, former inhabitants of Lake Champlain, war-like (battles Keeta-skog), thunder and lightning spirits.
  • Pe-ben[?] - (also Pebon[?]) a powerful sorceror who puts his audience to sleep when he tells stories, spirit of winter
  • See-gwen[?] - a young male who loved the season of summer, and brought her to the north every spring
  • Tabal-dak[?] (also Tabaldak[?]) - the androgynous creator of existence
  • Wa-won-dee-a-megw[?] - a snail spirit that can live in trees, on land or in the water, as well as change size and appearance to look like a huge snake, alligator or scaly man; has horns which can be ground into a magical powder
  • Wad-zoos-en[?] - the eagle that flaps his wings to create wind
  • Wassan-mon-ganeehla-ak[?] - a race of people who play games with a ball of light, causing the Aurora Borealis

Beings of the Golden Age

  • Oodzee-hozo[?] - ("the man who created himself") a man who lived before he invention of legs. He dragged his body around, creating mountains, valleys and rivers (in this early form, he is referred to as Bemee-geedzin-pobi-zeed[?]), as well as Lake Champlain, which is holy to the Abenaki. Odzihozo turned himself into a stone in the middle of the lake and is said to inhabit Rock Dunder[?] (west of Burlington, Vermont).
  • Tool-ba[?] - foolish turtle spirit, uncle of Gluskab
  • Pla-ween-noo[?] - turtle spirit, mother of Gluskab, patron spirit of the Sokwakis[?]
  • A-gaskw[?] (also Nokemis[?]) - woodchuck spirit, grandmother of Gluskab, very wise
  • Moos-bas[?] - mink spirit, adopted son on Gluskab, powerful fletcher, sometimes fulfills wishes
  • Mool-sem[?] - one of Gluskab's dogs, the white one, could shrink or enlarge himself
  • M-da-weelh-ak[?] - a loon spirit in the form of a dog, Gluskab's messenger, one of his dogs, the black one, could shrink or enlarge himself
  • A-senee-ki-wakw[?] - a race of stone giants, the first people Gluskab created but then destroyed because they crushed other animals and injured the earth with their great size

Gluskab and Malsumis

Tabaldak, the creator god, made humans and then Gluskab[?] (and Gluskabe[?], Glooscap[?], Glooskap[?], Nanabozho[?], Glooscap[?], Klooskomba[?]) and Malsumis[?] sprang from the dust on his hand. They both had the power to create a good world, but only Gluskab did so. Malsumis still seeks evil to this day.

Gluskab founded the Golden Age of the Earth by rendering the evil spirits of the Ancient Age smaller and safer, as well as teaching humanity how to hunt and fish, build shelter and all of the Abenaki's knowledge of art, invention and science. Gluskab's departure ended the Golden Age, though he is prophesied to return and renew it again.

Me-koom-wee-soo[?] was Gluskab's assistant and wields an ivory bow. He has a fierce temper and gains weight as he gets more angry; eventually, it is said, he sinks into stone. Gluskab and Me-koom-wee-soo had an archery contest once; Me-koom-wee-soo fired an arrow into the top of Mt. Washington[?], creating a pond, while Gluskab's arrow created a hole in the sky that was then called msatawa (the Evening Star)

Gluskab realized the strain hunters can cause on an ecosystem. He asked a woodchuck spirit for help, and she gave him all the hairs off her belly, woven into a magical sac. This is why woodchucks have bald bellies. Gluskab then went to a mountain, where Tabaldak had placed a huge eagle (Pomola[?]) that made bad weather by flapping its wings. After binding it, Gluskab realized some wind was necessary and loosened them slightly. Gluskab saved the world from a frog monster that swallowed all the planet's water. When Gluskab cut open the monster's belly, some animals jumped into the water and became fish. Some modern Wabanaki believe that Gluskab is angry at white people for not obeying his rules.

Beings of the Present Age

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