Encyclopedia > Xenophon

  Article Content


Xenophon (431- c. 360 BC), whose name means "strange sound," was an Athenian knight, an associate of Socrates, and is known for his writings on Hellenic culture.

While a young man Xenophon participated in the expedition led by Cyrus against his older brother, the emperor Artaxerxes II of Persian. Cyrus hoped to depose his brother and gain the throne, but did not tell his mercenaries of this true goal of the expedition. A battle took place at Cunaxa, where the Greeks were victorious but Cyrus was killed, and shortly thereafter their general, Clearchus of Sparta, was captured and executed. The mercenaries found themselves deep in hostile territory, far from the sea, and without leadership. They elected new leaders, including Xenophon himself, who led them north through Armenia and back to Greece. Xenophon's record of this expedition and the journey home was titled Anabasis ("Expedition").

Afterwards, Xenophon retired to Athens, but finding the city to be unfriendly, rejoined his comrades and helped the Spartans against Persia. When Athens allied with Persia against Sparta, he was banished, and spent the next few decades at Scillus, where his Anabasis was composed. Later the banishment was revoked, and Xenophon spent his last years at Athens. His date of death is uncertain, it is known only that he survived his patron Agesilaus, for whom he wrote an encomium.

List of Works

Xenophon's writings are often read by beginning Greek language students.

External Links

  • Anabasis (http://www.abacci.com/books/book.asp?bookID=151)
  • Cyropaedia (http://www.abacci.com/books/book.asp?bookID=475)
  • The Economist (http://www.abacci.com/books/book.asp?bookID=573)
  • Hellenica (http://www.abacci.com/books/book.asp?bookID=845)
  • Hiero (http://www.abacci.com/books/book.asp?bookID=869)
  • The Memorabilia (http://www.abacci.com/books/book.asp?bookID=1320)
  • On Horsemanship (http://www.abacci.com/books/book.asp?bookID=1500)
  • The Symposium (http://www.abacci.com/books/book.asp?bookID=2147)

All Wikipedia text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

  Search Encyclopedia

Search over one million articles, find something about almost anything!
  Featured Article
Dennis Gabor

...     Contents Dennis Gabor Dennis Gabor (Gábor Dénes) (1900-1979) was a Hungarian physicist. He invented holography in 1947, for whic ...

This page was created in 22.9 ms