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Viljandi is a town in Viljandimaa, Estonia. It is at 58.37N 25.60E. In German it was known as Fellin. The population was 18,900 in 2003.

The town is first mentioned the commentaries to "Geography" by al-Idrisi in 1154 - under the name of Falamus).

In 1211 it was beseiged by a joint army of Germans, Latvians[?] and Livs[?].

The Sword Brethren captured the town in August 1223. A contingent of Russians The following year Volquin[?], their Grandmaster, built a Castle in the town. It was a major fortification of Sword Brethren and was appointed a commander from 1248.

In 1283 the town received a charter from Vilhelm von Schuborch[?], the master of the Order. The town was a member of the Hanseatic League from the beginning of the 14th Century.

In 1470 Johann Wolthuss von Herse[?], the master of the order took up residence in the castle. In 1481 Ivan II of Russia laid seige to the castle but could not take it. However during the Livonian war[?] the Russians did seize it in 1560. During the Swedish-Polish wars at the beginning of the seventeenth century the castle changed hands several times and fell into ruin.

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