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The Umayyad dynasty was the first dynasty of caliphs ("successors") of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad, though they were of the same Meccan clan.

Muawiyah had been the governor of Syria under the 3rd and 4th caliphs, Uthman and Ali Ben Abu Talib.

The Umayyads were overthrown in the east by the Abbasid dynasty. An Umayyad prince, Abd-ar-rahman I, took over the Muslim territory in Spain and founded a new Umayyad dynasty there.

The Umayyad Caliphs

Muawiyah I ibn Abu Sufyan, 661-680
Yazid I[?] ibn Muawiyah, 680-683
Muawiya II[?] ibn Yazid, 683-684
Marwan I[?], 684-685
Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, 685-705
al-Walid I[?] ibn Abd al-Malik, 705-715
Sulayman[?] ibn Abd al-Malik, 715-717
Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz[?], 717-720
Yazid II[?] ibn Abd al-Malik, 720-724
Hisham[?] ibn Abd al-Malik, 724-743
al-Walid II[?] ibn Abd al-Malik, 743-744
Yazid III[?] ibn Abd al-Malik, 744
Ibrahim ibn Abd al-Malik, 744
Marwan II[?], 744-750

Umayyad Emirs of Cordoba

Abd-ar-rahman I, 756-788
Hisham I[?], 788-796
Al-Hakam I[?], 796-822
Abd-ar-rahman II, 822-852
Mohammed I, 852-886
Al-Mundhir[?], 886-888
Abdullah[?], 888-912
Abd-ar-rahman III, 912-929

Umayyad Caliphs of Cordoba

Abd-ar-rahman III, 929-961
Al-Hakam II[?], 961-976
Hisham II[?], 976-1008
Mohammed II, 1008-1009
Sulayman, 1009-1010
Hisham II[?], restored, 1010-1012
Sulayman, restored, 1012-1017
Abd-ar-rahman IV, 1021-1022
Abd-ar-rahman V, 1022-1023
Mohammed III, 1023-1024
Hisham III[?], 1027-1031
Succeeding dynasty - the Abbasids

see History of Islam

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