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Theory of everything

In physics, a theory of everything (TOE) is a theory that unifies the four fundamental forces of nature: gravity, the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, and the electromagnetic force. TOE is sometimes also called a supergrand unified theory[?].

There have been numerous theories of everything proposed by theoretical physicists over the last century, but as yet none has been able to stand up to experimental scrutiny. Popular candidates for a theory of everything at the moment include loop quantum gravity, string theory, and M-theory.

Theories of everything must be distinguished from grand unified theories (or GUTs), which attempt to unite all the fundamental forces except gravity. A theory that unites the electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces into a single electroweak force has already been established; GUTs attempt to unify the strong nuclear and electroweak forces.

Many GUTs predict proton decay; however proton decay has not been observed.

Other attempts have included Kaluza-Klein theory, an early attempt to unify electromagnetism with gravity.

See also: The Theory of Everything, a book with material written by Stephen Hawking but disowned by him

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