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Theodora(Greek: Θεοδώρα, literally meaning "Gift of God", lived 981 - August 31, 1056, ruled as Eastern Roman Empress from January 11, 1055 to August 31, 1056), was the daughter of Constantine VIII of the Byzantine Empire.

Possessed of a strong and austere character, she refused the hand of the heir-presumptive, Romanus, who was married instead to her sister Zoë in 1028. Though living in retirement she excited Zoë's jealousy, and on a pretext of conspiracy was confined in a monastery.

In April 19, 1042 the popular movement which caused the dethronement of Michael V. also led to Theodora's installment as joint-empress with her sister. After two months of active participation in government she allowed herself to be virtually superseded by Zoë's new husband, Constantine IX, on June 11, 1042.

Upon his death on January 11, 1055, in spite of her seventy years, she reasserted her dormant rights with vigour, and frustrated an attempt to supersede her on behalf of the general Nicephorus Bryennius. By her firm administration she controlled the unruly nobles and checked numerous abuses; but she marred her reputation by excessive severity towards private enemies and the undue employment of menials for advisers. She died suddenly on August 31, 1057. Having no children and being the last member of her dynasty, she had chosen one of her favorites as her successor. But Michael VI, not being related to the dynasty that had ruled the Eastern Roman Empire for a period of 189 years (867 - 1056) was not considered to be a rightful Emperor. This resulted in a series of conflicts for the throne between various noble families that lasted from 1056 till 1081.

Preceded by:
Constantine IX
Byzantine emperors Followed by:
Michael VI

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