Due to three centuries of colonization by Spain, a lot of Spanish words have been incorporated into Tagalog. The Tagalog phrase “Kumusta?” (How are [you]?) directly came from the Spanish “¿Como Estas?”. Foreign concepts such as names of the week and months have directly been adopted. In many other cases, there are equivalent Spanish and Tagalog terms, which can be used interchangeably. An example is the Tagalog words for chair which are upuan, and silya. Silya was adopted from the Spanish cilla.
American occupation have also introduced a lot of English words. Some examples are titser (teacher), bus (bus, pronounced boos), dyip (jeep), and restawrant (restaurant).
Most pronouns or panghalip, in Tagalog have direct translations in English.
Personal pronouns. There are seven personal pronouns in Tagalog. The first person pronouns are ako, kami, and tayo, corresponding to the English I, we (as in “we not including you”), and we (as in “we including you”). The second person pronouns are ikaw, kayo, corresponding to the singular and plural you. The third person pronouns are siya (singular) and sila (plural). Tagalog does not distinguish gender for the singular third person unlike English's he, she, and it. Tagalog pronouns have subjective, objective and possesive forms. The table below lists all of these forms.
|Second person||ikaw or ka||mo||iyo||kayo||iyo||inyo|
The objective form is actually the form used when the person or thing the pronoun refers to is the one doing the action (the verb of the sentence). For example, the phrase nahanap namin literally translates to found by us or we found. Thus, Nahanap namin ang libro means Found we the book.
When the person or thing the pronoun refers to is the object of a transitive verb (the action acts on the person or thing the pronoun refers to), the correct Tagalog pronoun used is formed by inserting the word sa before the possessive form of the pronoun. Thus, Nakahanap sa amin means found us. For example, the sentence The police found us literally translates to Ang pulis ang nakahanap sa amin, not Ang pulis ang nakahanap namin.
In addition, Tagalog has another personal pronoun, kita, which combines I-you (objective) constructs. I saw you simply tranlates Nakita kita instead of the more formal, Ako ay nakita ka.
Unlike in English, Tagalog does not have intensive or reflexive forms for the personal pronouns (pronouns with the suffix -self, such as myself). These forms are approximated by inserting the word sarili (self) and the objective form into the sentence. For example:
Interrogative pronouns. English who, what, when, where, why, which, and how directly translate to Tagalog sino, ano, kailan (also kelan), saan, bakit, alin, and paano.
Sentences in Tagalog are often in the predicate-subject order, reverse that of English. Sometimes, the predicate, if it contains a transitive verb, is split into two with the object of the verb following the subject. Almost all sentences can be transformed into the subject-predicate order, but is rarely done, and usually only for emphasis.
Here are examples with their literal English transalations preserving word order.
Unlike in English, Tagalog has only five vowel sound, corresponding to the five vowels. The vowel a is pronounced as in hat while u is pronounced as in moon.
Tagalog used to have diacritics in written text to indicate pronunciation, but has gradually been dropped in modern texts. The only diacritic remaining is the tilde (~) in Spanish proper nouns.
The common diacritic used was the circumflex accent (ˆ). It was placed over a final vowel to indicate a stress and glottal stop after that vowel. For example, the verb basâ (to wet) is pronounced bah-SA as opposed to the verb bása (to read), which is pronounced BAH-sah.
Before the Spanish came to the Philippines, Tagalog had a script called alibata, which has largely been replaced with a Latin-based script. Unicode encodes this script as Tagalog.
1 isa 2 dalawa 3 tatlo 4 apat 5 lima 6 anim 7 pito 8 walo 9 siyam 10 sampu 11 labing-isa 12 labingdalawa 13 labingtatlo 20 dalawampu 30 tatlumpu 40 apatnapu 50 limampu 60 animnapu 70 pitumpu 80 walumpu 90 siyamnapu 100 daan 1000 libo
week linggo Monday lunes Tuesday martes Wednesday miyerkules Thursday huwebes Friday biyernes Saturday sabado Sunday linggo
month buwan January Enero February Pebrero March Marso April Abril May Mayo June Hunyo July Hulyo August Agosto September Setyembre October Oktubre November Nobyembre December Disyembre
How are [you]? Kumusta? Good morning Magandang umaga Good afternoon Magandang hapon Good evenng Magandang gabi What is you name? Ano pangalan mo? Goodbye Paalam