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List of subsistence techniques

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List of Subsistence Techniques:

  • Foraging
  • Cultivation
    • Horticulture
      • Horticulture is plant cultivation, based on the use of simple tools.
    • Agriculture
      • Agriculture is cultivation involving continuous use of crop land, and is more labor-intensive than horticulture.
  • Pastoralism
    • Pastoral economies are based upon domesticated herd animals, but members of such economies may get agricultural produce through trade or their own subsidiary cultivation.
      • Pastoral nomadism: all members of the pastoral society follow the herd throughout the year.
      • Transhumance or agro-pastoralism: part of the society follows the herd, while the other part maintains a home village.
  • Modes of production
    • All societies divide labor according to gender and age, but the nature of these divisions varies greatly from society to society.
  • Means of Production
    • Means of production include land, labor, technology, and capital.
  • Alternative ends
    • People devote their time, resources, and energy to five broad categories of ends: subsistence, replacement, social, ceremonial, and rent.
      • Subsistence fund: work is done to replace calories lost through life activities.
      • Replacement fund: work is expended maintaining the technology necessary for life.
      • Social fund: work is expended to establish and maintain social ties.
      • Ceremonial fund: work is expended to fulfill ritual obligations.
      • Rent fund: work is expended to satisfy the obligations owed political or economic superiors.
  • Distribution and Exchange
    • The market principle
      • The market principle applies when exchange rates and organization are governed by an arbitrary money standard.
    • Redistribution
      • Redistribution is the typical mode of exchange in chiefdoms and in some non-industrial states.
    • Reciprocity
      • Reciprocity is exchange between social equals.
    • Potlatching
      • Potlatches are a widely studied ritual in which sponsors (helped by their entourages) gave away resources and manufactured wealth while generating prestige for themselves.



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