Redirected from Subsistence
List of Subsistence Techniques:
- Horticulture is plant cultivation, based on the use of simple tools.
- Agriculture is cultivation involving continuous use of crop land, and is more labor-intensive than horticulture.
- Pastoral economies are based upon domesticated herd animals, but members of such economies may get agricultural produce through trade or their own subsidiary cultivation.
- Pastoral nomadism: all members of the pastoral society follow the herd throughout the year.
- Transhumance or agro-pastoralism: part of the society follows the herd, while the other part maintains a home village.
- Modes of production
- All societies divide labor according to gender and age, but the nature of these divisions varies greatly from society to society.
- Means of Production
- Means of production include land, labor, technology, and capital.
- Alternative ends
- People devote their time, resources, and energy to five broad categories of ends: subsistence, replacement, social, ceremonial, and rent.
- Subsistence fund: work is done to replace calories lost through life activities.
- Replacement fund: work is expended maintaining the technology necessary for life.
- Social fund: work is expended to establish and maintain social ties.
- Ceremonial fund: work is expended to fulfill ritual obligations.
- Rent fund: work is expended to satisfy the obligations owed political or economic superiors.
- Distribution and Exchange
- The market principle
- The market principle applies when exchange rates and organization are governed by an arbitrary money standard.
- Redistribution is the typical mode of exchange in chiefdoms and in some non-industrial states.
- Reciprocity is exchange between social equals.
- Potlatches are a widely studied ritual in which sponsors (helped by their entourages) gave away resources and manufactured wealth while generating prestige for themselves.
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