**Stefan Banach** (

March 30,

1892 -

August 31,

1945), a great

Polish mathematician, one of the moving spirits of the

Lvov school[?] of mathematics in pre-war

Poland (see:

Lviv). He was largely self-taught in mathematics; his genius was accidentally discovered by

Hugo Steinhaus. When

World War II began, Banach was President of the

Polish Mathematical Society[?] and a full professor of

Lvov University[?]. Being on good terms with Soviet mathematicians, he was allowed to hold his chair during the Soviet occupation of Lvov. The German occupation of the city in 1941 resulted in the mass murder of Polish academics. Banach survived, but the only way he could work for a living was by feeding lice with his blood in a German institute where

typhoid fever research was conducted. His health undercut during the occupation, Banach died before he could be repatriated from Lvov, which was incorporated into the Soviet Union, to Poland after the war.

*Théorie des opérations linéaires* (*Teoria operacji liniowych*, 1932) is regarded as Banach's most influential work. He also initiated and edited the *Studia Mathematica* series.

Banach was the founder of functional analysis; he also made important contributions to the theory of vector spaces, measure theory, set theory and other branches of mathematics. See: Banach space, Banach algebra, Banach-Tarski paradox, Hahn-Banach theorem.

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