Encyclopedia > Specialization

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Concept B is a specialization of concept A if and only if:
  • every instance of concept B is also an instance of concept A; and
  • there are instances of concept A which are not instances of concept B.

For instance, 'Bird' is a specialization of 'Animal' because every bird is an animal, and there are animals which are not birds (dogs, for instance).

In logic, specialisation occurs when you take a statement such as:

"All cars are red"

And use it to derive statements such as:

"My car is red"
"Fred's car is red"

Specialisation is an important way to generate propositional knowledge, by applying general knowledge, such as the theory of gravity[?], to specific instances, such as "when I release this apple, it will fall to the floor".

Generalization is the opposite of specialisation

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