Currently, the most common technology for space transport is rocket propulsion, which expels matter to provide a net forward thrust. There are different ranges and types of rockets for different environments and goals however, including:
There are also several non-standard propulsion systems in the works which do not directly rely on rocket propulsion, including solar sails, plasma-bubble magnetic systems, and using gravitational slingshot effects. A more advanced concept is the space elevator.
For more types, see spacecraft propulsion.
Link: Russian Space Agency RAKA http://www.rosaviakosmos.ru/english/eindex.htm