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Smolensk (population 350,000) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dniepr[?] river. The name of the city is derived from the Russian word smola, or pine tree, which grow in the area.

The historic city features the Cathedral of the Assumption[?] and a 16th century kremlin.

Timeline 882 Incorporated to the Kijovian state

1054 Smolensk duchy is found

1229 Trade agreement with Riga and Hanza

1233-1238 Invasion of Tartars. Smolensk pays tribut to Tartars.

1320 Alliance with the Lithuania

1330 Smolensk liberated from the tribut to Tartars thanks to the help of Lithuania

1360 Smolensk army takes part in the Lithuania struggle against Moscow

1385 Personal union of Poland and Lithuania

1395 Smolensk incorporated finally to Lithuania

1410 3 Smolensk divisions take part in the Grunwald battle against Teutonic Order knights

1432-1440 civil war

1514 incorporated to Moscow state

1544, 1552, 1553 failed attempts of Lithuania to recapture the city

1569 Polish-Lituanian union in Lublin. The newly created state called The Commonwealth inherited claims to Smolensk.

1596-1602 construction of the city walls

1609 beginning of the siege by the army of the Commonwealth

1611 Smolensk captured again by Polish army, thanks to the help of local people

1633-1634 the failed siege by the Moscow army

1654 Smolensk captured by Russian army.

1667 Final peace agreement decides that Smolens belongs to Russia

1708 Smolensk province (gubernia) is found

1812 Napoleon captures Smolensk on the way to Moscow

1917 Soviets take over the city. In the neighbour Katyn forest the center of the extermination of the "enemies" is established.

1940 Mass execution of the 5000 Polish POW in the Katyn forest

1941-43 Occupied by Nazi Germany

1991 Smolensk remains in the border of Russian Federation.

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