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Second Treaty of Thorn

the Second Treaty of Thorn was an agreement for cessation of battles. The Wars of the Cities of Prussia, which lasted for thirteen years from 1454-1466 were fought against by some cities and towns ,while others fought for the rule of Prussia by the Catholic Teutonic Knights. Casimir IV Jagiello, married to Elizabeth Habsburg first aided the cities in their quest for independence, then tried to annex. This was unlawful and started the wars anew. Neither the Pope nor the Holy Roman Emperor, who held title to the land, ratified the 1466 Treaty of Thorn and denounced it in 1467. Eastern Prussia turned Protestant in 1525. The emperors from the house of Habsburg continued as supreme administrator of Prussia by furnishing so-called Deutsch Master after the last Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights had resigned this post in 1525, after which he ruled Prussia as Protestant Duchy. During the times of the religious wars accompanying the Reformation movement, the emperor put the duke of Prussia under ban.

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