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Sage

Salvia
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Salvia
Species
Salvia aethiopis L.
Salvia amissa Epling
Salvia apiana Jepson
Salvia argentea L.
Salvia arizonica Gray
Salvia azurea Michx.
Salvia ballotiflora Benth.
Salvia X bernardina Parish
Salvia blogdettii Chapm.
Salvia brandegeei Munz
Salvia carduacea Benth.
Salvia chapmanii Gray
Salvia clevelandii Greene
Salvia coccinea P.J. Buchoz
Salvia columbariae Benth.
Salvia davidsonii Greenm.
Salvia divinorum Epling & Jativa
Salvia dolichantha Whitehouse
Salvia dorrii Abrams
Salvia engelmannii Gray
Salvia eremostachya Jepson
Salvia farinacea Benth.
Salvia funerea M.E. Jones
Salvia glutinosa L.
Salvia greatae Brandeg.
Salvia greggii Gray
Salvia henryi Gray
Salvia hispanica L.
Salvia lemmonii Gray
Salvia leptophylla Benth.
Salvia leucophylla Greene
Salvia longistyla Benth.
Salvia lycioides Gray
Salvia lyrata L.
Salvia mellifera Greene
Salvia micrantha Vahl
Salvia microphylla Benth.
Salvia misella Kunth
Salvia mohavensis Greene
Salvia munzii Epling
Salvia nemorosa L.
Salvia nohavensis Greene
Salvia nutans L.
Salvia occidentalis Sw.
Salvia officinalis L.
Salvia pachyphylla Epling
Salvia X palmeri Gray
Salvia parryi Gray
Salvia penstemonoides Kunth & Bouché
Salvia pinguifolia Woot. & Standl.
Salvia potus Epling
Salvia pratensis L.
Salvia reflexa Hornem.
Salvia regla Cav.
Salvia riparia Kunth
Salvia roemeriana Scheele
Salvia sclarea L.
Salvia serotina L.
Salvia sonomensis Greene
Salvia spathacea Greene
Salvia splendens Sellow
Salvia subincisa Benth.
Salvia summa A. Nels.
Salvia X superba Stapf
Salvia X sylvestris L.
Salvia texana Torr.
Salvia thomasiana Urban
Salvia tiliifolia Vahl
Salvia urticifolia L.
Salvia vaseyi Parish
Salvia verbenacea L.
Salvia verticillata L.
Salvia vinacea Woot. & Standl.
... and dozens more.
Ref: ITIS 32680 (http://www.itis.usda.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=32680) 2002-09-06

Sage (Salvia officinalis) is a savory evergreen herb with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue or purplish flowers. The leaves are used as a culinary herb, to spice fatty dishes.

The name Salvia comes from salveo, salvare = to heal.

A medieval saying, sometimes attributed to Martin Luther, is: "Cur moriatur homo cui Salvia crescit in horto?" ('Why should a man die whilst sage grows in his garden?'). To which Hildegard of Bingen said: "Why should a man die whilst sage grows in his garden, if not because nothing can stand against death?"

Some Artemisia[?] species are incorrectly called sages. A better name for these is sagebrush; they generally taste vile, and have no place on the spice shelf. This misnaming has gone rather far in smudging: smudge[?] bundles are made with various grey-leaved species of Artemisia and sold as "whitesage" smudges. The only true whitesage is Salvia apiana, which has a delightful scent when burned.

Table of contents
1 Aromatic sages
2 Non-aromatic sages
3 Chia sages
4 Salvia divinorum

Medicinal uses

Medicinally, there are several types of Salvia:
  • the aromatic ones
    • excepting pineapple sage, which doesn't work like the rest
  • the non-aromatic ones
  • Chia sages
  • Salvia divinorum

Aromatic sages

  • Salvia apiana, White sage, California white sage, a perennial at home in the mountains of Southern California, sometimes found in the desert of southern Arizona,
  • Salvia candelabrum, a blue-flowering scented sage,
  • Salvia clevelandii, Blue sage, Cleveland sage, Fragrant sage, with a very strong scent, found either delightful or disgusting,
  • Salvia fulgens, Cardinal sage, Mexican red sage, a red-flowering perennial,
  • Salvia greggii, Autumn sage, a red-flowered sage with a very strong scent,
  • Salvia lyrata, Lyre-leaved sage, Lyreleaf sage, Cancerweed, a purple-flowering perennial,
  • Salvia officinalis, Garden sage, Kitchen sage, Dalmatian sage, a grey-leaved perennial with showy blue flowers; this is "the" sage. There are several varieties:
    • S. o. 'Purpurascens', a purple-leafed variety, considered by some to be strongest of the garden sages,
    • S. o. 'Tricolor', a variety with white-yellow-green leaves,
    • S. o. 'Berggarten', a variety with huge leaves,
    • S. o. 'Icterina', a variety with yellow-green leaves,
    • S. o. 'Alba', a white-flowered variety,
  • Salvia pratensis, Meadow clary, Meadow sage, a blue-flowering species,
  • Salvia sclarea, Clary sage, a biennial sage with enormous (for sages) flower spikes, quite showy, and quite tasty in teas,
  • Salvia verticillata, Whorled clary, Lilac sage, a white- or blue-flowering perennial with the scent of Clary sage.

The aromatic sages strengthen the lungs; they can therefore be used in teas or tinctures to prevent coughs: 2-3 cups a day for 1-2 months, repeat yearly. Less aromatic species of Salvia are run-of-the-mill mint-family anti-inflammatories, which means that they can be used for pretty much any infection or inflammation, and will give at least some relief.

Salvia officinalis, as a cold tea, will stop sweating, while the same tea, drunk hot, will produce sweating. Cold and hot teas will also either stop or enhance milk production.

Salvia apiana, white sage, is a very strong general anti-inflammatory, used as tea or tincture[?]. The tincture has a very nice scent; it can be used as a perfume. This species is the famous whitesage of smudge sticks.

Salvia elegans (old: S. rutilans), Pineapple sage, is a tender perennial with pineapple-scented leaves. Medicinally, this is perhaps closest to the scented geraniums[?], sweet-smelling Pelargonium[?] species.

Salvia miltiorrhiza, Red sage, is used medicinally in TCM.

Non-aromatic sages The non-aromatic ages are not considered medicinal. You'll find species like

  • Salvia argentea, Silver sage, usually a showy-flowered biennial, it's named for the color of its foliage,
  • Salvia azurea, Blue sage, Azure blue sage; this species has very big bright blue flowers; it's quite showy
  • Salvia coccinea, Blood sage, a scarlet-flowered tender perennial,
  • Salvia farinacea, Mealycup sage, grown as an annual in temperate climates, it will survive mild winters,
  • Salvia horminum, (syn.: S. viridis), Painted sage, Clary, an annual with showy blue, pink or white flower bracts,
  • Salvia patens, a blue-flowering annual,
  • Salvia splendens, Scarlet sage, a red-flowering annual,
  • Salvia x superba, a purple-flowering perennial.

Chia sages

  • Salvia arizonica, Arizona sage, Desert indigo sage, a purple-flowering annual, native to Texas,
  • Salvia carnosa, a blue-flowering annual, native to the Arizona desert,
  • Salvia columbariae, Chia, Chia sage, California chia, a blue-flowering annual, native to California desert,
  • Salvia polystachya, Chia sage, Chia seed,
  • Salvia potus, Chia.

The seeds of these species are used as bulk laxatives[?], much like the seeds of Psyllium[?] (Plantago spp.) or linseed[?].

Chia has been important in the diet of desert Indians. It is still used for its mucilaginous qualities by Mexican natives.

Salvia divinorum Salvia divinorum, Diviner's sage, Yerba de la Pastora. This plant differs from all the other sages; it's a Mexican visionary herb, which cannot be grown from seed.

Classification: Sage is a member of the mint family, Lamiaceae.



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