For example, if you travel at a constant speed, then the distance you cover and the time you spend are proportional, the proportionality constant being the speed. Similarly, the amount of force acting on a certain object from the gravity of the Earth at sea level is proportional to the object's mass.
To test whether x and y are proportional, one performs several measurements and plots the resulting points in a Cartesian coordinate system. If the points lie on (or close to) a straight line passing through the origin (0,0), then the two variables are proportional, with the proportionality constant given by the line's slope.
The two quantities x and y are inversely proportional if there exists a nonzero constant k such that
See also: proportional font, proportional representation
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