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Politics of Egypt

Government Country name:
conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah (Arabic: جمهوريّة مصر العربيّة)
local short form: Misr (Arabic: مصر)
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

Data code: EG

Government type: republic

Capital: Cairo (Arabic: القاهرة, Romanization: Al-Qāhria(t))

Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazah):

Ad Daqahliyah[?], Al Bahr al Ahmar[?], Al Buhayrah[?], Al Fayyum[?], Al Gharbiyah[?], Al Iskandariyah[?], Al Isma'iliyah[?], Al Jizah[?], Al Minufiyah[?], Al Minya[?], Al Qahirah[?], Al Qalyubiyah[?], Al Wadi al Jadid[?], Ash Sharqiyah[?], As Suways[?], Aswan, Asyut[?], Bani Suwayf[?], Bur Sa'id[?], Dumyat[?], Janub Sina'[?], Kafr ash Shaykh[?], Matruh[?], Qina[?], Shamal Sina'[?], Suhaj[?].

Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

Constitution: 11 September 1971

Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (حسني مبارك محمد) (since 14 October 1981)
head of government: Prime Minister Atef OBEID (since 5 October 1999)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president nominated by the People's Assembly for a six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular referendum; national referendum last held 26 September 1999 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's nomination by the People's Assembly to a fourth term

Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura - which functions only in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms)
elections: People's Assembly - last held 29 November 1995 (next to be held NA November 2000); Advisory Council - last held 7 June 1995 (next to be held NA)
election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NDP 72%, independents 25%, opposition 3%; seats by party - NDP 317, independents 114, NWP 6, NPUG 5, Nasserist Arab Democratic Party 1, LSP 1; Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - NDP 99%, independents 1%; seats by party - NA

Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

Political parties and leaders: Democratic Unionist Party [Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK]; Green Party [Kamal KIRAH]; Misr al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party) [leader NA]; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party [Dia' al-din DAWUD]; National Democratic Party or NDP [President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader] - governing party; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or NPUG [Khalid MUHI AL-DIN]; New Wafd Party or NWP [Fu'ad SIRAJ AL-DIN]; Social Justice Party [Muhammad 'ABDAL-'AL]; Socialist Labor Party or SLP [Ibrahim SHUKRI]; Socialist Liberal Party or LSP [Mustafa Kamal MURAD]; Umma Party [Ahmad al-SABAHI]
note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but has moved more aggressively in the past six years to block its influence; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned. Egyptians are living under emergency law since 1967, except for an 18-month break in 1980. Emergency laws are continously extended every 3 years since 1981.

International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUC, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNTAET, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Nabil FAHMY
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319, 5131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel C. KURTZER
embassy: (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900
telephone: [20] (2) 3557371
FAX: [20] (2) 3573200

Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars, and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band

See also : Egypt



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