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Polatsk

Polacak, which was also mentioned in historical documents as Polotesk, Polot'sk, Polteks, and even Paltejsborg in Scandinavian sagas) is one of the most ancient cities of all Slavs. It is first mentioned in the "Story of Bygone Years" in 862A.D. Polacak was founded by Kryvichi Eastern Slav ethnos at the crossing of Western Dzvina river with Palata (hence "Polacak") river. Polacak has became a state center for Kryvichy in 8-9 centuries. Polacak is a center of a powerful Polacak Principality in 10-13 century, which was competing in unifying Eastern Slavs with Russian Nogorod and Ukrainian Kyiv. Polacak has also become a spiritual capital of kryvichi - Belarusian ancestors. A Sofia Cathedral in Polacak was erected to establish Eastern Orthodox rule and compete with Kyiv Sofia. Polacak was ruled by Dukes dynasty of Rahvalodavichy: 980A.D. - Rahvalod (killed by Kyevan duke Uladzimir Sviataslavavicjh, who forcibly married Rahvalod's daughter Rahneda); 988A.D. his grand son Iziaslau Uladzimiravich; 1003A.D. - Brachyslaw Iziaslavavich; 1044-1101 - Usiaslau Brachyslavavich (Polacak has reached ist's highest power during his rule and became serious rival of Kyiv); 1132 - his grand son Vasil'ka; 1160-80 - Usiaslau Vasil'kavich; end of XII c. - Barys; 1216 - Uladzimir; then Brachyslau. Polacak had and independent bishop cathedra. Efrasinnia of Polacak - famous Belarusian educator, who was later sanctified - was born in Polacak around 1110. During XII-XIII centuries Polacak has 8,000 citizen, a well thought architectural plan, occupies an area of 80 hectars, has two castles. Polacak develops its own School of Icon Painting in XII century. Polacak becomes a part of the Grand Duche of Lithuania since 1307 and was governed by apointees of Grand Duke. Belarusian enlightener and first printer Francisk Skaryna is born in Polacak around 1490. In XVI century Polacak has 100,000 citizen. In XVII century after devastating war with Muscovy Tsars its population is 20,000 people. Polacak Sofia is blown up by Russian Tsar - Peter The Great - in 1710 during Russian-Swedish War. Polacak is practically deserted after the Russian wars of late XVII - early XVIII centuries. Ever since it was a small rural town - part of Vitebsk Gubernia of Russian Empire and later part of Vitebsk Voblast of the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR). Only lately with erection of a giant Oil Processing Plant in Navapolacak - a new twin city across Dzvina river an influx of oil money had changed Polacak's fortune's to better. Some people are speaking of returning the capital of Belarusian nation to Polacak, which is still considered a spiritual center of Belarus.



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