Therapists examine patients' medical histories, then test and measure their strength, range of motion, balance and coordination, posture, muscle performance, respiration, and motor function. They also determine patients' ability to be independent and reintegrate into the community or workplace after injury or illness. Next, they develop treatment plans describing a treatment strategy, the purpose, and anticipated outcome. Physical therapist assistants, under the direction and supervision of a physical therapist, may be involved in the implementation of the treatment plan. Physical therapist aides perform routine support tasks, as directed by the therapist.
Treatment often includes exercise for patients who have been immobilized and lack flexibility, strength, or endurance. They encourage patients to use their own muscles to further increase flexibility and range of motion before finally advancing to other exercises improving strength, balance, coordination, and endurance. Their goal is to improve how an individual functions at work and home.
Physical therapists also use electrical stimulation, hot packs or cold compresses, and ultrasound to relieve pain and reduce swelling. They may use traction or deep-tissue massage to relieve pain. Therapists also teach patients to use assistive and adaptive devices such as crutches, prostheses, and wheelchairs. They may also show patients exercises to do at home to expedite their recovery.
As treatment continues, physical therapists document progress, conduct periodic examinations, and modify treatments when necessary. Such documentation is used to track the patient's progress, and identify areas requiring more or less attention.
Physical therapists often consult and practice with a variety of other professionals, such as physicians, dentists, nurses, educators, social workers, occupational therapists, speech-language pathologists, and audiologists.
Some physical therapists treat a wide range of ailments;
others specialize in areas such as pediatrics, geriatrics[?], orthopedics[?], sports medicine[?], neurology, and cardiopulmonary physical therapy[?].
In the United States, experienced physical therapists can apply to take a specialty exam to earn board certification in any of seven sub-specialty areas: Cardiovascular and Pulmonary, Clinical Electrophysiologic, Geriatric, Neurologic, Orthopaedic, Pediatric, and Sports physical therapy. Therapists who have board certification will have a designation such as "OCS" (Orthopedic certified specialist) after their names. You can search a directory of accredited specialists on the APTA website: http://www.apta.org/Education/specialist/dir_cert_cln_pt-85-97
A number of physical therapists have found the Alexander Technique to be a useful tool to incorporate into their practice.
In some countries, physical therapy is known as physiotherapy.
Note: When you get to OT and RT, you will see that there are many overlaps in these fields. For example, "Hand Therapy" can be PT or OT, actually based more on a particular medical facilities' resources. But, it does fit under both definitions.
All States (in the United States) require physical therapists to pass a licensure exam after graduating from an accredited physical therapist educational program before they can practice.
According to the American Physical Therapy Association[?], there were 189 accredited physical therapist programs in 1999. Of the accredited programs, 24 offered bachelor?s degrees, 157 offered master?s degrees, and 8 offered doctoral degrees. By 2002, all physical therapist programs seeking accreditation will be required to offer degrees at the master?s degree level and above, in accordance with the Commission on Accreditation in Physical Therapy Education[?].
Physical therapist programs start with basic science courses such as biology, chemistry, and physics, and then introduce specialized courses such as biomechanics, neuroanatomy[?], human growth and development[?], manifestations of disease, examination techniques, and therapeutic procedures. Besides classroom and laboratory instruction, students receive supervised clinical experience. Individuals who have a 4-year degree in another field and want to be a physical therapist, should enroll in a master?s or a doctoral level physical therapist educational program.
Competition for entrance into physical therapist educational programs is very intense, so interested students should attain superior grades in high school and college, especially in science courses. Courses useful when applying to physical therapist educational programs include anatomy, biology, chemistry, social science, mathematics, and physics. Before granting admission, many professional education programs require experience as a volunteer in a physical therapy department of a hospital or clinic.
Physical therapists should have strong interpersonal skills to successfully educate patients about their physical therapy treatments. They should also be compassionate and possess a desire to help patients. Similar traits are also needed to interact with the patient?s family.
Physical therapists are expected to continue professional development by participating in continuing education courses and workshops. A number of States require continuing education to maintain licensure.