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Nubia is the region south of Egypt along the Nile, in northern Sudan.

Its people spoke at least two varieties of the Nubian language group, a Nilo-Saharan subfamily which includes Nobiin[?], Kenuzi-Dongola[?], Midob[?] and several related varieties in the northern part of the Nuba Mountains[?] in South Kordofan[?]. A variety - Birgid[?] was spoken (at least until 1970) north of Nyala[?] in Darfur but is now extinct. Old Nubian was used in mostly religious texts dating from the 8th and 9th centuries C.E. It is considered ancestral to modern day Nobiin.

In ancient times Nubia was a kingdom closely associated with Ancient Egypt, and occasionally conquered by their more powerful northern neighbours. Nubia adopted many Egyptian practices such as their religion and the practice of building pyramids. The kingdom of Nubia survived longer than that of Egypt and was never annexed by the Romans. The Nubians did trade with the Romans, and were also a source of mercenaries.

Many Nubians were forcibly resettled to make room for Lake Nasser[?] after the construction of the dams at Aswan. Nubian villages can now be found north of Aswan on the west bank of the Nile and on Elephantine Island[?], but many others live in large cities such as Cairo.

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