The Night and Fog prisoners were German political prisoners during World War II who had been sentenced to death but not yet executed. The prisoners were typically sent to prison and used for labor, sometimes for the entire duration of the war. In prison they were at the bottom of a de facto tier system; as a result they received the least amount of food and the fewest chances for health care. The Night and Fog prisoners take their name from Adolf Hitler's Nacht und Nebel decree issued on December 7, 1941, resulting in the disappearance of many political activists.
The 1955 film Night and Fog, which one might expect to be about the prisoners, deals briefly with their conditions but focuses primarily on questions of hate and human responsibility.