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Nephrology is a branch of internal medicine dealing with the study of the function and diseases of the kidney.

Humans have two kidneys: one on each side of the spine (see bilateral symmetry). Generally, at least one kidney must have some level of function to ensure that the body can remove certain substances from the bloodstream (as in to reduce BAC to legally acceptably levels for operating a motor vehicle). Renal failure[?] is a term used to describe the cessation of kidney function.

The word nephrology is derived from the Greek word nephros, which means kidney, and the suffix -ology, or study of.

See also Hydronephrosis[?] (the enlargement of one or both kidneys).

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