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N ray

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The so-called N rays (or N-rays) were a phenomenon described by French scientist René-Prosper Blondlot[?] at the beginning of the 20th century.

Blondlot claimed to be able to detect rays emanating from most substances, which he dubbed N rays. However, later investigation proved that these were a purely subjective phenomenon, with the scientists involved having recorded data that matched their expectations. The incident is used as a cautionary tale among scientists on the dangers of error introduced by experimenter bias.

N rays were cited as an example of pathological science by Irving Langmuir.

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