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Meforshim is a hebrew word meaning "commentaries". In Judaism this term refers to commentaries on the Torah (five books of Moses), Hebrew Bible, the Mishnah, the Talmud or even the siddur (Jewish prayerbook.)

Classic Torah and/or Talmud commentaries have been written by:

  • Saadia Gaon, 10th century Babylon
  • Abraham ibn Ezra
  • Rashi (Shlomo Yitzchaki), 12th century France
  • Samuel ben Meir, the Rashbam, 12th century France
  • Maimonides (Moshe ben Maimon)
  • Gersonides
  • David ben Joseph Kimhi, the Radak, 13th century France
  • Nahmanides (Moshe ben Nahman)
  • Joseph ben Isaac, the Bekhor Shor, 12th century France
  • Nissim be Reuben Gerondi, the RaN, 14th century Spain
  • Issac ben Judah Abravanel (1437-1508)
  • Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno, 16th century Italy

Classic Talmud commentaries have been written by Rashi. After Rashi the Tosafors were written, which was an omnibus commentary on the Talmud by the disciplies and descendents of Rashi; this commentary was based on discussions done in the rabbinic academies of Germany and France.

Modern Torah commentaries which have received wide acclaim in the Jewish community include:

  • The Sefat Emet (Lips of Truth), Yehudah Aryeh Leib of Ger, 19th century Europe
  • The Torah Temimah of Barukh Halevi Epstein
  • The Torah commentary of Samson Raphael Hirsch
  • The "Pentateuch and Haftarah" by Joseph H. Hertz
  • Nehamah Leibowitz
  • The five volume JPS Commentary on the Torah by Nahum M. Sarna, Baruch A. Levine, Jacob Milgrom and Jeffrey H. Tigay
  • Etz Hayim: A Torah Commentary" by David L. Lieber[?], Harold Kushner and Chaim Potok

Modern Siddur commentaries have been written by:

  • Samson Rapahael Hirsch, The Hirsch Siddur, Feldheim
  • Elie Munk, The World of Prayer, Elie Munk
  • Nosson Scherman, The Artscroll Siddur, Mesorah Publications
  • Reuven Hammer, Or Hadash", United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism
  • My Peoples Prayer Book, Jewish Lights Publishing, written by a team of non-Orthodox rabbis and Talmud scholars.

See also: Torah, Torah study

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