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Magdeburg hemispheres

The Magdeburg hemispheres were one of Otto von Guericke's most interesting experiments. They were two hollow hemispheres a little over a foot in diameter which fitted together so well that the air could be pumped out from between them. The pressure of the surrounding atmosphere then held them together firmly. 1657, in a test before the Reichstag in Regensburg and the Emperor, it required sixteen horses, four pairs on each hemisphere to pull them apart.



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Sophus Lie

... mathematician (1842 - 1899) who largely created the theory of continuous symmetry, and applied it to the study of geometric structures and differential equations. ...