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Buddhist philosophical tradition founded by Nagarjuna, that asserts that all phenomena are empty of 'self-nature', that is, that they have no independent reality distinct from the causes and conditions from which they arise.

Historical Madhyamika schools include the Yogacara[?] Madhyamika, who claim that all phenomena are nothing but the 'play of mind', but that mind as such is not a phenomenon, but is the basis of everything; and the Prasangika[?] Madhyamika, whose highly dialectical approach is to show by the method of Reductio Ad Absurdum that any assertion made about the nature of phenomena is wrong (including those made by the Yogacara philosophers). History of logic

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