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Rulers of Saxony

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List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918

The original Duchy of Saxony was in Northern Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony.

Table of contents

Dukes of Saxony

Ottonian or Liudolfing dynasty

Billung Dynasty

  • Hermann 961-973
  • Bernard I 973-1011
  • Bernard II 1011-1059
  • Ordulf 1059-1072
  • Magnus 1072-1106

Supplinburg Dynasty

  • Lothar 1106-1127 (German King 1125-1137, Emperor 1133-1137)

Welf[?] Dynasty

  • Henry II the Proud 1127-1138 (also Duke of Bavaria)

Ascanian Dynasty

  • Albert the Bear 1138-1142

Welf Dynasty[?]

With the final removal of the Welfs in 1180, the Duchies of Brunswick and Lüneburg, which fell to their descendants, passed out of the control of the Duchy of Saxony. The Ascanians, who now took control, were based further east, near the Elbe.

Ascanian Dynasty[?]

  • Bernard III 1180-1212
  • Albert II 1212-1260

Dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg

On Albert II's death, Saxony was split between his sons, who became Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg and Saxe-Lauenburg. The Dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg were as follows:

Ascanian Dynasty

  • Albert III 1260-1298
  • Rudolf I 1298-1356

Electors of Saxony

In 1356 was issued the Golden Bull, which raised the Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of Elector. Henceforth he was known by the title of Elector of Saxony.

Ascanian Dynasty'

  • Rudolf II 1356-1370
  • Wenzel 1370-1388
  • Rudolf III 1388-1419
  • Albert III 1419-1422

The last Ascanian Elector of Saxony died in 1422. He was succeeded by the Margrave Frederick of Meissen and Thuringia, of the Wettin Dynasty.

Wettin Dynasty

  • Frederick I the Warlike 1422-1428
  • Frederick II the Gentle 1428-1464
(on Frederick II's death, the Wettin territories were divided between his sons. The elder, Ernest, inherited Northern Meissen, Southern Thuringia, and Wittenberg, along with the Electoral title. Albert, the younger, received Northern Thuringia and Southern Meissen)

Ernestine Electors of Saxony

  • Ernest 1464-1486
  • Frederick I the Wise 1486-1525
  • John the Steadfast 1525-1532
  • John Frederick 1532-1547

Albertine Dukes of Saxony

  • Albert the Bold 1486-1500
  • George 1500-1539
  • Henry IV 1539-1541
  • Maurice 1541-1547

In 1547, following Emperor Charles V's victory at the Battle of Mühlberg[?], Wittenberg and the Electoral dignity were transferred to the Albertine line. The Ernestine line continued to rule in southern Thuringian, but eventually split up into many different tiny duchies, of which Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach[?], Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen[?], and Saxe-Altenburg[?] lasted until 1918. These will not be listed here.

Albertine Electors of Saxony

Kings of Saxony

In 1806, the Holy Roman Empire came to an end. Saxony became a Kingdom, and Frederick Augustus III became King Frederick Augustus I

House of Wettin

Heads of the House of Wettin since 1918

  • King Frederick Augustus III 1918-1932
  • Frederick Christian, Margrave of Meissen 1932-1968
  • Maria Emanuel, Margrave of Meissen 1968-present



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