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Limerick (poetry)

A limerick is a short, often humorous and ribald poem developed to a very specific structure.

The couplet scheme is usually aabba, with a very rigid meter. The first, second, and fifth lines are three metrical feet; the third and fourth two metrical feet. The rhythm can be called a anapestic foot, two short syllables and then a long, the reverse of dactyl rhythm. The first line often ends with a person's name or a location (geographical limericks), and rhymes are often intentionally tortured.

Sections in poems following the limerick form can be found throughout known history, from the work of Greek classic poets to the first known English popular song, Summer is i-cumen in (c. 1300) and the works of Shakespeare (Othello, King Lear, The Tempest and Hamlet all contain limericks within longer segments). The first deliberate creation to match limerick form is usually considered Tom o' Bedlam (c. 1600):

From the hag and hungry goblin
That into rags would rend thee
And the spirit that stands
by the naked man,
In the book of the moons defend yee.

Other examples can be discovered from the 18th century. The first book of limericks is The History of Sixteen Wonderful Old Women (1820), followed by the Anecdotes and Adventures of Fifteen Gentlemen (1822). But the form was popularised by Edward Lear, who has been grandiloquently dubbed "The Poet Laureate of the Limerick", in his A Book of Nonsense (1845) and a later work (1872) on the same theme. Lear wrote 212 limericks, but they were aimed more at nonsense than toward a punchline or twist in the final line, and often the last line is simply a variant or reversal of the first. This had led some to retroactively rename his works Learics, as they are not true limericks. An example:

There was a Young Person of Smyrna, whose grandmother threatened to burn her;
But she seized on the cat, and said, 'Granny, burn that!
You incongruous old woman of Smyrna!'

(Lear's limericks were typeset as three lines.)

The origins of the actual word limerick is obscure. The OED first reports it only in 1898. The name is often linked to an earlier form of nonsense verse which was traditionally followed by the refrain that ended "...come all the way up to Limerick?", Limerick being an Irish town. That the older refrain does not match the meter of the limerick has been used to attack this theory.

Ogden Nash is renowned for humorous short poetry, and often used the limerick form:

There once was a miser named Clarence
Who Simonized both of his parents;
"The initial expense,"
he remarked, "is immense,
But it saves on the wearance and tearance."

For reasons of decency, many collections consist entirely of innocent examples. Amongst the exceptions are several collections by the science-fiction writer Isaac Asimov, who edited Lecherous Limericks (1975), More Lecherous Limericks (1976), Still More Lecherous Limericks (1977), Limericks Too Gross (1978) and A Grossery of Limericks (1981).

It is often considered that the less innocent limericks are amongst the best, and the most common:

The limerick packs laughs anatomical
Into space that is quite economical.
But the good ones I've seen
So seldom are clean
And the clean ones so seldom are comical.

For instance, the works of the great bard Andrew Dice Clay extended the profanity of the medium:

Hickory, Dickory, Dock
This bitch was sucking my cock
The clock struck two
I dumped my goo
And dropped the bitch off on the next block

There is a sub-genre of poems that subvert the structure of the true limerick. These are sometimes called anti-limericks. For example,

There was a young bard from Japan
Whose limericks never would scan.
When asked why this was,
He said 'It's because
I always try to get as many words in the last line as I possibly can.'

and,

A limerick fan from Australia
Regarded his work as a failure:
His verses were fine
Until the fourth line.

This is taken a stage further by this pair of verses:

There was a young man of Arnoux
Whose limericks stopped at line two

...and by extension...

There was a young man of Verdun

...which if completed would be a self-contradiction.

Limericks in other languages than English

Although limericks have been written in a great number of different languages, many of these suffer from the fact that the meter of the limerick does not adapt well to such languages as, for example, French or Latin. Good limericks can be written in languages that have a similar natural rhythm as English. The following example is in Icelandic: ---

Ůegar lÝki­ er glaseygt, svo glampar Ý,
og Ý g÷rnum er eitthva­, sem skvampar Ý,
enda nefbroddur rau­ur
-- ■ß er dˇninn ei dau­ur --
heldur drekkur hann of miki­ Campari.

A French example, from 1715:

On s'Útonne ici que Caliste
Ait pris l'habit de Moliniste
Puisque cette jeune beautÚ
Ote Ó chacun sa libertÚ
N'est ce pas une Janseniste?



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