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Larynx

The larynx is an organ in the neck of mammals involved in control of breathing, protection of the airway and sound production. The organ is situated at the point where the upper tract splits into the trachea and the esophagus.

The larynx rests in a frame of cartilage bound by ligaments and muscle. At the front is the thyroid cartilage creating the prominence of the Adam's apple[?] in humans. Below the thyroid cartilage is a ring called the cricoid. Above the larynx is a supporting bone called the hyoid[?], which moves the larynx during swallowing. The epiglottis[?] projects down through the hyoid bone.

Within the larynx there is the supraglottis at the top, consisting of the epiglottis, the aryepiglottic folds, the false vocal cords and the ventricle. In the middle is the glottis, within which are the two true vocal folds (also called vocal cords), thin muscular strips coated in mucosa. One end of the folds is joined to the thyroid cartilage at the anterior commissure, the other end of each fold is joined to the arytenoid cartilage which move within the posterior cricoid, muscles attached to the arytenoid pull the folds apart during breathing and brings them close together during sound production. The lowest portion of the larynx is the subglottis.

During swallowing the larynx (and the epiglottis) close to prevent swallowed material entering the lungs, there is also a strong cough reflex to protect the lungs. Sensation is transferred by the Superior Laryngeal nerve (glottis and supraglottis) and the Recurrent Laryngeal nerve (subglottis and muscles), both branches of the vagus nerve.

Sound pitch and volume are created in the larynx, while articulation of the sound derives from the use of teeth, tongue, palate, and lips.



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