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Kwajalein Atoll is part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), 2,100 nautical miles southwest of Honolulu, Hawaii, at 8.77N 167.73E. Kwajalein is the world's largest coral atoll, comprising 97 islets, and surrounds the world's largest lagoon.

Since 1944, when the U.S. captured Kwajalein from the Japanese, it has been used for military purposes, while escaping the tragic fate of nearby Bikini Atoll. Eleven of the 97 islands comprising Kwajalein Atoll are now leased by the United States from the RMI government to accommodate the Ronald Reagan Ballistic Missile Defense Test Site, or RTS (RTS is formerly known as Kwajalein Missile Range, KMR). RTS includes radar installations, optics, telemetry, and communications equipment which are used for ballistic missile and missile interceptor testing and space operations support. U.S. staff and their families are accommodated in trailers or hard housing.

The population of Kwajalein in 2003 was about 11,000. The towns are Ebeye, Enubirr, and Mejatto.

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