See History of ancient Israel and Judah
Kingdom of Judah
When the disruption took place at Shechem, at first only the
tribe of Judah followed the house of David. But very soon after
the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of Judah, and Jerusalem
became the capital of the new kingdom (Josh. 18:28), which was
called the kingdom of Judah.
For the first sixty years the kings of Judah aimed at
re-establishing their authority over the kingdom of the other
ten tribes, so that there was a state of perpetual war between
them. For the next eighty years there was no open war between
them. For the most part they were in friendly alliance,
co-operating against their common enemies, especially against
Damascus. For about another century and a half Judah had a
somewhat checkered existence after the termination of the
kingdom of Israel till its final overthrow in the destruction of
the temple (586 B.C.) by Nebuzar-adan, who was captain of
Nebuchadnezzar's body-guard (2 Kings 25:8-21).
The kingdom maintained a separate existence for three hundred
and eighty-nine years. It occupied an area of 8,900 km2 (3,435 square
The kings of Judah
- 928-913 Rehoboam
- 913-911 Abijam
- 911-871 Asa
- 871-848 Jehoshaphat
- 848-843 Jehoram
- 843-842 Ahaziah (Killed at a feast in Jezreel, Israel by Jehu)
- 842-836 (Queen Mother) Athaliah[?]
- 836-798 Jehoash[?] (Joash, son of Ahaziah).
In the first regnal year of Joash (836/798 BC) the High priest of Baal, Mattan was killed (2 Chronicles, 24: 17). Refer to the chronology of the Phoenicians
for this event.
- 798-769 Amaziah
- 769-733 Uzziah = Azariah
(Georgios Syncellus wrote that the First Olympiad[?]
took place in his 48th regnal year.)
- 751-743 Jotham
- 743-726 Ahaz
- 726-688 Hezekiah
See details for absolute dating under him. He was contemporary with King Sennacherib of Assyria, and Merodach-Baladan king of Babylonia. However, the latter kings cannot provide a reliable absolute date for his reign: Al-Biruni and Bar Hebraeus mention a "King Sennacherib the Less" as well. Furthermore, there was another king named Merodakh Baladan ben Baladan, also known as Mardokempad. Ptolemy
assumed, without any reason, that Mordac Empadus was contemporary with King Hezekiah.) These two Baladans remained pretenders during Sennacherib's reign, therefore it is not easy to identify their regnal years as Ptolemy attempted. This ancient scholar frequently attributed some observations to certain years of some kings for the sake of simplicity in his tabulation, but those were not part of the original observations. Also, he often arbitrarily fudged astronomical data in order to support his own theories. Refer to Robert R. Newton, The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy
, 1977. Unfortunately many authorities still accept his list of rulers as the base of a perfect chronology.
- 688-642 Manasseh
- 642-640 Amon
- 640-609 Josiah
King Josiah died in the chronology accepted by most scholars in 609 BC in battle against Necho II of Egypt
- 609-609 Jehoahaz
- 609-597 Jehoiakim
- 597-597 Jehoiachin. (Perhaps from March to May as Chronicles 36: 10 allows.)
- 597-586 Zedekiah
Zedekiah rebelled twice, in the first rebellion (597 BC) Jerusalem was taken and most of its leaders were taken. In the second rebellion in 586 BC Jerusalem was taken, the temple burnt, the king taken and Judah utterly lost its independence to Nebuchadnezzar II.
605 or 604 commonly used for the accession of Nebuchadnezzar.
The kings of Israel (for cross-reference)
- 925-907 Jeroboam I
- 907-905 Nadab (Last of Jeroboams line)
- 905-883 Baasha
- 883-881 Elah
- 881-881 Zimri (Son, ruled for 7 days)
- 881-870 Omri (Khumri in some foreign records, founded a new dynasty)
- 870-848 Ahab (Defeated the Assyrians at Qarqar)
- 848-847 Ahaziah
- 851-842 Joram
- 842-814 Jehu
General, staunch supporter of Jahweh, called by Elijah
to end Ahab's dynasty. He was a contemporary of the Assyrian King Shalmaneser III (858-824) (Ahab died in battle against Shalmaneser), and paid tribute to him.
- 814-800 Jehoahaz
- 800-783 Jehoash or Joash.
He paid tribute to King Adad-nirari III of Assyria (810-783).
- 783-748 Jeroboam II (Israel was at the height of its power)
- 748-748 Zachariah
- 748-748 Shallum
- 748-738 Menahem
- 738-733 Pekahiah
- 733-732 Pekah
Pekah was deposed in 732 BC by:
- 732-722 Hosheah
Hosheah paid tribute to the Assyrian King Shalmaneser V[?] (727-722)
but rebelled in 728 BC. Shalmaneser besieged the capital, Samaria.
He died shortly before the fall of the city Shalmaneser died and his brother Sargon II (722-705) completed the siege with success in 722, making Judah the sole Hebrew kingdom. The ten tribes were migrated to other parts of the Assyrian Empire and never heard from again. A small group of peolpe fled south to assimilate into Judah.
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