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Khazaria was the country of the Khazars, neighboring the Byzantine Empire in the southwest, Kievan Rus' in the northwest, and Azerbaijan in the southeast. This Turkic people adopted Judaism in the 8th or 9th century.

As an independent state, Khazaria existed between about 652 and 1016. Its supreme ruler was known by the title "khagan". Its last khagan was named George Tsul[?]. Much of Khazaria was covered by steppe land. Khazaria bordered the Caspian Sea and Black Sea. The Volga River passed through eastern Khazaria.

Major cities of Khazaria included:

Along the Caspian coast and Volga delta --

In the Caucasus --
Maghas[?] (Alan capital)
Sukhumi[?] (Abkhazian capital)

In the Crimea and Taman[?] region --
Kerch (also called Bospor)
Mangup[?] (also called Doros)
Samkarsh[?] (also called Tmutorokan, Tamatarkha)
Sudak[?] (also called Sugdaia)

In the Don valley --

Related Articles

This article is part of History of Russia.

External link

Bibliography of Khazar Studies, 1901-Present http://www.khazaria.com/khazar-biblio/toc

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