Encyclopedia > Java Database Connectivity

  Article Content

Java Database Connectivity

Java Database Connectivity, or JDBC, is an API for the Java programming language that defines how a client may access a database. It provides methods for querying and updating data in a database. JDBC is oriented towards relational databases. The Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition includes the JDBC API together with an ODBC implementation of the API enabling connections to any relational database that supports ODBC. This driver is native code and not java.

Table of contents

Types of Drivers

There are commercial and free drivers available for most relational database servers. These drivers fall into one of the following types:

  • Type 1
  • Type 2
  • Type 3
  • Type 4

Overview of the API JDBC allows multiple implementations to exist and be used by the same application. The API provides a mechanism for dynamically loading the correct java packages and registering them with the JDBC Driver Manager. The DriverManager is used as a connection factory for creating JDBC connections.

JDBC connections support creating and executing statements. These statements may be update statements such as SQL INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE or they may be query statements using the SELECT statement. Additionally, stored procedures may be invoked through a statement. Statements are one of the following types:

  • Statement - the statement is sent to the database server each and everytime.
  • PreparedStatement - the statement is compiled on the database server allowing it to be executed multiple times in an efficient manner.
  • CallableStatement - used for executing stored procedures on the database.

Update statements such as INSERT, UPDATE and DELETE return an update count that indicates how many rows were affected in the database. These statements do not return any other information.

Query statements return a JDBC row result set. The row result set is used to walk over the result set. Individual columns in a row are retrieved either by name or by column number. There may be any number of rows in the result set. The row result set has metadata that describes the names of the columns and their types.

There is an extension to the basic JDBC API that allows for scrollable result sets and cursor support among other things. Refer to the sun documentation for more details.

Example

The method Class.forName() is used to load the jdbc driver class. The line below causes the JDBC driver from some jdbc vendor to be loaded into the application.

 Class.forName( "com.somejdbcvendor.TheirJdbcDriver" );

Next, the DriverMangager.getConnection() method is used to create a JDBC connection.

 Connection conn = DriverManager.getConnection( 
      "jdbc:somejdbcvendor:other data needed by some jdbc vendor",
      "myLogin",
      "myPassword" );

The URL used is dependent upon the particular JDBC driver. It will always begin with "jdbc:", but the rest is upto the particular vendor. Once a connection is established, a statement must be created.

 Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
 stmt.executeUpdate( "INSERT INTO MyTable( name ) VALUES ( 'my name' ) " );

Data is retrieved from the database using a database query mechanism. The example below shows creating a statement and executing a query.

 Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
 ResultSet rs = stmt.executeQuery( "SELECT * FROM MyTable" );
 while ( rs.next() ) {
     int numColumns = rs.getMetaData().getColumnCount();
     for ( int i = 1 ; i <= numColumns ; i++ ) {
        //Column numbers start at 1.
        //Also there are many methods on the result set to return
        // the column as a particular type. Refer to the sun documentation
        // for the list of valid conversions.
        System.out.println( "COLUMN " + i + " = " + rs.getObject(i) );
     }
 }
 rs.close();
 stmt.close();

Typically, however, it would be rare for a seasoned Java programmer to code in such a fashion. The usual practice would be to abstract the database logic into an entirely different class and to pass preprocessed strings (perhaps derived themselves from a further abstracted class) containing SQL statements and the connection to the required methods.

An example of a PreparedStatement Query. Using conn and class from first example.

 try {
 Statement stmt = conn.createStatement();
 ResultSet rs;
 PreparedStatement ps = conn.prepareStatement( "SELECT i.*, j.* FROM Omega i, Zappa j WHERE i = ? AND j = ?" );
 // In the prepared statement ps, the question mark denotes variable input,
 // which can be pass through a parameter list, for example.

 // The following replaces the question marks, 
 // with the string or int, before sending it to SQL.
 // The first parameter corresponds to the nth occurrence of the ?, 
 // the second parameter tells Java to replace it with 
 // the second item.
 ps.setString(1, "Poor Yorick");
 ps.setInt(2, 8008);
 
 // The ResultSet rs, receives the SQL Query response.
 rs = ps.executeQuery();
 while ( rs.next() ) {
     int numColumns = rs.getMetaData().getColumnCount();
     for ( int i = 1 ; i <= numColumns ; i++ ) {
        //Column numbers start at 1.
        //Also there are many methods on the result set to return
        // the column as a particular type. Refer to the sun documentation
        // for the list of valid conversions.
        System.out.println( "COLUMN " + i + " = " + rs.getObject(i) );
     }
 
 rs.close();
 ps.close();
 stmt.close();
 }
 catch (SQLException e) {
  // typical exception handling here
 }

Here are examples of host database types, Java can convert to with a function

setXXX() Methods
Oracle Datatype setXXX()
CHAR 
setString()
VARCHAR2 
setString()
LONG 
setString() 
NUMBER 
setBigDecimal()
setBoolean() 
setByte() 
setShort() 
setInt() 
setLong() 
setFloat() 
setDouble()
INTEGER setInt()
FLOAT setDouble() 
RAW
setBytes()
LONGRAW 
setBytes() 
DATE 
setDate() 
setTime() 
setTimestamp() 

Additional Resources



All Wikipedia text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

 
  Search Encyclopedia

Search over one million articles, find something about almost anything!
 
 
  
  Featured Article
Albert Frederick

... Frederick Hohenzollern (1553-1618) was duke of Prussia from 1568 until his death. He was the second and last Prussian duke of the Ansbach branch of t ...