Encyclopedia > Invariance of domain

  Article Content

Invariance of domain

Invariance of domain is a theorem in topology about homeomorphic subsets of Euclidean space Rn. It states:
If U is an open subset of Rn and f : URn is an injective continuous map, then V = f(U) is open and f is a homeomorphism between U and V.
Normally, to check that f is a homeomorphism, one would have to verify that both f and its inverse function f -1 are continuous; the theorem says that if the domain is an open subset of Rn and the image is also in Rn, then continuity of f -1 is automatic. Furthermore, the theorem says that if two subsets U and V of Rn are homeomorphic, and U is open, then V must be open as well. Both of these statements are not at all obvious and are not generally true if one leaves Euclidean space.

The theorem is due to L.E.J. Brouwer. Its proof uses tools of algebraic topology, notably the Brouwer fixed point theorem.

Consequences

An important consequence of the domain invariance theorem is that Rn cannot be homeomorphic to Rm if mn. Indeed, no non-empty open subset of Rn can be homeomorphic to any open subset of Rm in this case. (If n < m, then we can view Rn as a subspace of Rm, and the non-empty open subsets of Rn are not open as subsets of Rm.)

Generalization

The domain invariance theorem may be generalized to manifolds: if M and N are topological n-manifolds without boundary and f : MN is a continuous map which is locally one-to-one (meaning that every point in M has a neighborhood such that f restricted to this neighborhood is injective), then f is an open map[?] (meaning that f(U) is open in M whenever U is an open subset of M).



All Wikipedia text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

 
  Search Encyclopedia

Search over one million articles, find something about almost anything!
 
 
  
  Featured Article
Eurofighter

... in 1994 (then just known as the Eurofighter EF 2000). Despite many delays and controversies over cost, the Typhoon is now in series production. Current orders for the ...

 
 
 
This page was created in 24.1 ms