For example, define the function f such that f(x) = "x(x)". Then, the object f(f) = "f(f)". This object could be seen as indirectly referring to itself.
It is an important concept in mathematics and logic. Indirect selfreference was studied in great depth by W. V. Quine, and occupies a central place in the proof of Gödel's incompleteness theorem.
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