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Holy League

The Holy League was a coallition of various European powers that was formed between 1510 and 1511 to defend the states of Italy against Louis XII of France, and so strengthen the power of the pope.

Members of the league were Pope Julius II, Venice, Switzerland, England under Henry VIII, Aragon under Ferdinand II of Aragon, and Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.

After being defeated by the French at the Battle of Ravenna[?] on April 11 1512, the League gained the advantage, with notable victories by the Swiss over the French at Milan in 1512 and Novara in June 1513, this latter causing them to withdraw from Italy.

The English also had success in 1513 in northern France with successful seiges at Therouanne and Tournais, and at the Battle of the Spurs at Guinegate[?]. This despite an attempted Scottish invasion of England - see Battle of Flodden Field.

The death of Julius II in February 1513 soon lead to the league's collapse - but this was by no means the end of the struggle over Italy - see Italian Wars.

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