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Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Roman name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the left bank of the Rhine. In English the word Gaul also means one of the inhabitants of that region in ancient times.
The area was subsequently governed as a number of provinces, the principal ones being Gallia Narbonensis[?], Gallia Lugdunensis, Gallia Aquitania[?] and Gallia Belgica[?]. The capital of the Gauls was Lyon (Lugdunum).
After coming under increasing pressure from the tribes of Germany from the middle of the 3rd century AD, Roman rule in Gaul ended with the defeat of the Roman governor Syagrius by the Franks in AD 486.